Calculation for establishing vehicle speed for different final drives.

Formula :                               60,000 

                    FD (Final drive/diff ratio) x  wheel rev per mile.


Wheel/tire combinations - revolutions per mile:

145/70/10                             1176.78

165/70/10                             1078.47

145/70/12                             1059.06

155/70/12                             1030.71

165/60/12                             1047.27

175/50/13                             1058.82

These are for common tire types, and accurate enough for assessment - a combination of using industry standard for theoretical calculation, actually measured assortment of wheels/tires, and calculated averages! Applying the formula to a modern Mini with 12” wheels gives the following -


                                60,000              =      60,000    =   18.25 mph per 1,000 rpm.

                         3.105 x 1059.06             3,288.38

So 70 mph is achieved at a whisker over 3,800rpm. (I just know a bunch of you are going to check this out next time you’re driving around! But remember the speedos are grossly inaccurate, whereas the rev counters are fairly good).


Calculation for gear ratios and transmitted engine rpm

Basic rule to remember is ratio is established by dividing tooth count on driven gear by the tooth count on its driver. To work out overall gearbox ratios you also have to establish the constant ratio.


Constant ratio =       tooth count on laygear input gear

                                     tooth count on input shaft


This is NOT the fourth gear ratio assumed by many. Fourth gear doesn’t actually exist, as once in top gear the first motion shaft directly engages the mainshaft. Consequently it’s always a 1 to 1 ratio.


Gear ratio       =       tooth count on driven mainshaft gear    X   constant ratio.

                                   tooth count on driver on laygear


Example:     1st gear of A+ standard gearbox

Constant ratio =     30  =  1.765


Gear ratio       =     31  x 1.765  =  2.066  x  1.765  =  3.647



Calculation for transmitted engine rpm at output shaft

Input gear speed in rpm  =          engine rpm

                                           transfer (drop) gear ratio


Pinion speed in rpm       =  input gear speed (rpm)

                                               actual gear ratio


Out put shaft speed in rpm =  pinion speed (rpm)

                                                 final drive ratio