Doing A Valve Job? Then You Gotta Know Your Cylinder Head
First of all, everybody has their own opinion on this subject of doing a Valve Job. The most experienced people will tell you that the best way to maintain your engine performance is to accept the fact that valve jobs need to be done 2 or 3 times more often than rings and bearings! And this data base was concluded when leaded gas was the norm! Now that unleaded is all you can get, valve jobs are needed even more often!
But regardless of the why, the point is every once in awhile, they have to be done. (We have a good article on Do I Need A Valve Job if you're still unsure.) And if you're needing a new cylinder head check out our Cylinder Head Search Results.
The Purpose of a Valve Job is Two Fold
The first is the valve seats. The impurities in the air and gas often get trapped between the valve and the seat in the head; under worst conditions stopping the valve from closing, but more commonly being smashed enough to allow just a little seepage of hot gases. The valve is dependent upon intimate and total contact with the valve seat to dissipate the heat; anything that prevents this contact will allow the valve to heat up and eventually burn!
The second reason for a valve job is the valve guides. The problem with unleaded gas not only affects the valve seats, but just as significantly the guides; the lack of lubrication in the unleaded gas causes excessive wear. Most original and early cars have steel guides, which might last longer but can wear the valve stem. Bronze guides will not last as long, but stem wear will be greatly reduced.
Why Performance Modifications Affect Value Job Frequencies
Another factor in the need for more frequent valve jobs is the increasingly common use of high performance camshafts. High performance cams achieve their objective by increasing valve lift, among other factors, This is great, but the stock rocker actually pushes the valve sideways as well as down and the higher the lift the greater the side loads on the stem and guide.
Every performance gain has a price, but this high performance penalty can be offset with the use of modern roller tipped rockers! While on the subject of rockers...
...it is important to note the condition of your existing rocker shaft and arms. When these parts are worn, setting the valve clearance is very difficult and if you run the engine with poorly adjusted valves not only will you lose horsepower but you can also burn a valve. The very early rocker arms do not actually have any sort of bush in them and must be replaced when worn; these are typically the pressed steel type which are not very strong in the first place. The most common rocker used to be the forged version; these have bushes in them and can be used on any and all size motors. The latest design is a cast sintered iron that is very strong and now easy to find as complete assemblies.
Getting The Right Valves for Your Classic Means Knowing Your Cylinder Head
The chart below will help you identify which cylinder head your Mini, Sprite, Austin or Midget might have. Knowing this will help you find the correct valves you need. And if you have questions - be sure to give us a call - 800-946-2642.
|Casting #||Inlet size||Exhaust size||Chamber capacity||Normally fitted to:||Also fits|
|2A628||1 1/16"||1"||24,6cc||850 Mini, A35,A40||998,1100 and Cooper|
|2A629||round port on intake|
|12A1458||1 1/16"||1"||24,6cc||late 850 &998||as above but a hole in the front for temp gauge|
|12G1851||1 1/16"||1"||24,6cc||997 Cooper||fits as big valve head for 850 & 998|
|12G202||1 5/32"||1"||26,1cc||Austin/Morris 1100||As above but square formed inlets|
|12G206||1 7/32"||1"||28,3cc||Early MG 1100||upgraded 12G202, square intake ports with location rings|
|12G295||1 7/32"||1"||28,3cc||998 Cooper,MG 1100, Sprite MkIII||Fits on 998 when bigger vales as needed|
|12G940||1 5/16"||1 5/32"||21,4cc||1275GT,A/M1300||Can be modified to the specifications below|
|9 Bolts||33,3mm||29,53mm||Sprite MK IV, Marina 1,3|
|12G940||1 13/32"||1 5/32"||21,4cc||Austin 1300 GT||Fits on 1275 Gt when bigger valves are needed|
|11 Bolts||35,6mm||MG 1300 MK II, late Cooper S|
|AEG165||1 13/32"||1 7/32"||21,4cc||Cooper S||Can be used instead of the 11 bolted 12G940|
|12A185||12A185 was early casting coded yellow AEG165 is later colour coded brown or blue|
|12G940||1 5/16"||1 5/32"||21,4cc||Turbo MG||Sodium cooled exh. Vlaves & improved cooling but thinner deck|
|CAM4180||1.0625"||1"||25.5cc||998 Mini A+ and lead free|
|Number||Inlet dia.||Exhaust dia.||Nominal cc||Standard fitment|
|2A628||1.0625"/26.99||1.00"/25.4||24.5||850, 998 Mini & 948 Sprite|
|2A629||1.0625"/26.99||1.00"/25.4||24.5||948, A35 & Morris Minor|
|12A1456||1.0625"/26.99||1.00"/25.4||24.5||850, 998 Mini & 948 Sprite|
|12G202||1.156"/29.36||1.00"/25.4||26.1||997 Cooper, Austin 1100 Mk|
|CAM4180||1.0625"/26.99||1.00"/25.4||25.5||998 Mini - A+ (1980-on) and lead free|
|12G206||1.218"/30.93||1.00"/25.4||28.3||Early 998 Cooper, MG1100|
|12G295||1.218"/30.93||1.00"/25.4||28.3||998 Cooper, MG1100|
|12A185||1.401"/35.6||1.22"/31.0||21.4||First Mk1 Cooper S|
|AEG163||1.401"/35.6||1.22"/31.0||21.4||Later Mk1 & Mk2 Cooper S|
|12G940*||1.312"/33.33||1.15"/29.2||21.4||1275GT, Austin 1300, all late A+ models inc. Turbo but not MG Metro|
Stamped '12G1805' on flat area by thermostat - MG1300, 1300GT & Mk3 Cooper S
|12G940*||1.401"/35.6||1.15"/29.2||21.4||As above plus MG Metro|
A+ head castings - despite having the same 12G940 casting number - are considerably different in appearance, loosing the flat area behind the thermostat housing and around the rest of the rocker/head stud areas to a sculptured look - where these areas are replaced by a 'sunken' cast finish.
The A+ castings were introduced with the appearance of the Metro in 1980, although some late 1275GTs (1979-on) had them fitted. Generally they are easily recognised by their colour - a putrid yellow on the small-bore castings and bright red on the large-bore ones, a paint finish that is VERY difficult to remove, even in a chemical tank.
The MG Metro Turbo shares the same valve sizes with the other non-'big valve' 12G940 variants but has 8mm, sodium-filled exhaust valves.
A+ heads generally have three collet grooves in the valves, collets are 14-degree cone taper instead of the 10-degree on single groove collets (so parts are not interchangeable between single and triple groove types) and the top-caps have a raised ridge around the collet hole.
And by the way, we have a great article on Performance Cylinder Heads )